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THE DEATH AND RESURRECTION OF LORD JESUS CHRIST

(Presented here is combined version of the four testimonies
in the New Testament  prepared by  late Fr. Camil Bulke SJ in the Book “SAVIOUR’
 –  edited by Fr. Varghese Paul SJ. The numbers are as in the book)

 

THE PASSION

XXX. THE JEWISH TRIAL
(Thursday-Friday)

 
Jesus truly died:

331.   The Agony

[Jn] After Jesus had said this prayer he left with his disciples and went across the brook called Kidron. There was a garden in that place, and Jesus and his disciples went in.

[Mk] They came to a place called Gethsemane, and Jesus said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” Then he took Peter, James, and John with him. Distress and anguish came over him, and he said to them: “The sorrow in my heart is so great that it almost crushes me. Stay here and watch.”

He went a little farther on, threw himself on the ground and prayed that, if possible, he might not have to go through the time of suffering "Father," he prayed, "my Father! All things are possible for you. Take this cup of suffering away from me. Yet not what I want, but what you want.”
[Lk] An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. In great anguish he prayed even more fervently; his sweat was like drops of blood, falling to the ground.

[Mt] Then he returned to the three disciples and found them asleep; and he said to Peter: “How is it that you three were not able to watch with me for one hour? Keep watch, and pray, so you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.”

Once more Jesus went away and prayed, “My Father, if this cup of suffering cannot be taken away unless I drink it, your will be done.” He returned once more and found the disciples asleep; they could not keep their eyes open.

St Mathew and St Mark mention the hymn which is sung at the end of the Jewish Paschal Supper: "Then they sang a hymn and went out to the Mount of Olives." St Luke reads: "And went, as he usually did, to the Mount of Olives; and the disciples went with him."

St. John adds: “Here there was a garden.”

St. Luke specifies: “Then he went off from them, about distance of  a stone’s throw.”

Mk (14,40) reads: and they did not know what answer to make to him.

 

Again Jesus left them, went away, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. Then he returned to the disciples and said: “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look! The hour has come for the Son of Man to be handed over to the power of sinful men. Rise, let us go. Look, here is the man who is betraying me!”

332.    The Arrest of Jesus

[Jn] Judas, the traitor, knew where the place was, because many times Jesus had met there with his disciples. So Judas went to the garden, taking with him a group of Roman soldiers and some temple guards sent by the chief priests and the Pharisees; they were armed and carried lanterns and torches.

[Mk] The traitor had given the crowd a signal: “The man I kiss is the one you want. Arrest him and take him away under guard.”

[Mk] Judas went straight to Jesus and said, “Peace be with you, Teacher,” and kissed him.

But Jesus said, “Judas, Is it with a kiss, that you betray the Son of Man?”

[Jn] Jesus knew everything that was going to happen to him; so he stepped forward and said to them, “Who is it you are looking for?”

“Jesus of Nazareth,” they answered.

“I am he,” he said.

Judas, the traitor, was standing there with them. When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they moved back and fell to the ground. Jesus asked them again, “Who is it you are looking for?”

“Jesus of Nazareth,” they said.

“I have already told you that I am he,” Jesus said. “If, then, you are looking for me, let these others go.”

He said this so that what he had said might come true: “Not a single one was lost, Father, of all those you gave me.” [Mt] Then they came up, arrested Jesus, and held him tight.

[Lk] When the disciples who were with Jesus saw what was going to happen, they asked, "Shall we use our swords, Lord?"

 

[Jn] Simon Peter who had a sword; drew it and struck the High Priest's slave, cutting off his right ear. The name of the slave was Malchus.

[Lk] But Jesus said, ‘Enough of this!” He touched the man’s ear and healed him.

[Mt] Then Jesus said to him: “Put your sword back in its place, for all who take the sword will die by the sword. [Jn] Do you think that I will not drink the cup of suffering my Father has given me?”

[Mt] Don’t you know that I could call on my Father for help and at once he would send me more than twelve armies of angels? But in that case, how could the Scriptures come true that say it must happen in this way?”

[Lk] Then Jesus said to the chief priests and the officers of the temple guard and the elders who had come there to get him: “Did you have to come with swords and clubs, as though I were an outlaw? I was with you in the temple every day, and you did not try to arrest me. But this hour belongs to you and to the power of darkness.”

[Jn] Then the Roman soldiers with their commanding officer and the Jewish guards arrested Jesus, and bound him.

[Mt] But all this has happened in order to make come true what the prophets wrote in the Scriptures. Then all the disciples left him and ran away.

[Mk] A certain young man, dressed only in a linen cloth, was following Jesus. They tried to arrest him, but he ran away naked, leaving the cloth behind.

 

333.    Jesus before Annas and Caiphas

[Jn] They took him first to Annas. He was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, who was High priest that year. Annas sent him, still tied up, to Caiaphas the High Priest. It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jewish authorities that it was better that one man die for all the people.

[Mk] Then, Jesus was taken to the High Priest’s house, where all the chief priests, the elders, and the teachers of the Law were gathering.

 

334.    Peter Denies Jesus

[Jn] Simon Peter and another disciple followed Jesus. That other disciple was well known to the High Priest, so he went with Jesus into the courtyard of the High priest’s house while Peter stayed outside by the gate. Then, the other disciple, who was well known to the High Priest, went back out, spoke to the girl at the gate and brought Peter inside.

It was cold, so the servants and guards had built a charcoal fire and were standing around it, warming themselves. Peter went over and stood with them, warming himself.

[Mk] Peter was still down in the courtyard when one of the High Priest’s servant-girl came by. When she saw Peter warming himself, she looked straight at him and said, “You, too, were with Jesus of Nazareth.” But he denied it. “I don’t know…. I don’t understand what you are talking about,” he answered, and went out into the passage. Just then a cock crowed.

 

335.     Jesus’ answer to the High Priest

The High Priest questioned Jesus about his disciples and about his teaching. Jesus answered: “I have always spoken publicly to everyone; all my teaching was done in the synagogues and in the Temple, where all the Jews come together. I have never said anything in secret. Why, then, do you question me? Question the people who heard me. Ask them what I told them - they know what I said.”

When Jesus said this, one of the guards there slapped him and said, “How dare you talk like this to the High Priest!”

Jesus answered him: “If I have said something wrong, tell everyone here what it was. But if I am right in what I have said, why do you hit me?”

336.    Peter Denies Jesus Again

[Mt] Peter went out to the entrance of the courtyard. Another servant-girl saw him and said to the men there, “He was with Jesus of Nazareth.”

Again Peter denied it, and answered, “I swear that I don’t know that man!”

[Lk] And about an hour later another man insisted strongly: [Mt] “Of course you are one of them,” and said. “After all, the way you speak gives you away!”

[Jn] So the others said to him, “Aren’t you one of the disciples of that man?” But Peter denied it. “No, I am not,” he said. One of the High Priest’s slaves, a relative of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, spoke up. “Didn’t I see you with him in the garden?” 

[Mk] Then Peter said, "I swear I am telling the truth! May God punish me if I am not! I do not know the man you are talking about!”

Just then a cock crowed a second time. [Lk] The Lord turned round and looked straight at Peter, [Mk] and Peter remembered that Jesus had said to him, “Before the cock crows tonight you will say three times that you do not know me.” [Lk] Peter went out and wept bitterly.

 

337.    Jesus is Mocked and Beaten

[Lk] The men who were guarding Jesus mocked him and beat him. They blindfolded him and asked him, “Who hit you? Guess!” And they said many other insulting things to him.

 

(Friday)

338.    The Condemnation

[Mt] Early in the morning all the chief priests and the Jewish elders made their plan against Jesus to put him to death.

[Mk] The chief priests and the whole Council tried to find some evidence against Jesus, in order to put him to death, but they could not find any. Many witnesses told lies against Jesus, but their stories did not agree.

Then some men stood up and told this lie against Jesus: “We heard him say, ‘I will tear down this Temple which men made, and after three days I will build one that is not made by men.’” Not even they, however, could make their stories agree.

The High Priest stood up in front of them all and questioned Jesus: “Have you no answer to the accusation they bring against you?”

But Jesus kept quiet and would not say a word.

Again the High Priest spoke to him: “In the name of the living God, I now put you on oath: tell us if you are the Messiah, the Son of God.”

[Lk] He answered: “If I tell you,  you will not believe me, and if I ask you a question you will not answer me. But from now on the Son of Man will be seated at the right side of the Almighty God.”

They all said, “Are you, then, the Son of God?”

He answered them, “You say that I am.”
[Mt] But I tell all of you: from this time on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right side of the Almighty, and coming on the clouds of heaven!”

At this the High Priest tore his clothes and said: “Blasphemy! We don’t need any more witnesses! Right here you have heard his blasphemy! What do you think?” They answered, “He is guilty, and must die.”

339.    The Death of Judas

When Judas, the traitor, saw that Jesus had been condemned, he repented and took back the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders. “I have sinned by betraying an innocent man to death!” he said.

“What do we care about that?” they answered. “That is your business!”

Judas threw the coins down into the Temple and left; then he went off and hanged himself.

The chief priests picked up the coins and said, “This is blood money, and it is against our Law to put it in the Temple treasury.”

After reaching an agreement about it, they used the money to buy the Potter’s Field, as a cemetery for foreigners. That is why that field is called “Field of Blood” to this very day.

340.     The Field of Blood

Then what the prophet Jeremiah had said came true: “They took the thirty silver coins, the amount the people of Israel had agreed to pay for him, and used them to buy the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”

XXXI. THE ROMAN TRIAL
(Friday)

341.    Jesus is brought before Pilate

[Jn] Early in the morning Jesus was taken from Caiaphas' house to the governor’s palace. It was early in the morning. The Jews did not go inside the palace because they wanted to keep themselves ritually clean, in order to be able to eat the Passover meal. So Pilate went outside to meet them and said, “What do you accuse this man of?”

Their answer was, “We would not have brought him to you if he had not committed a crime.” Pilate said to them, “You yourselves take him and try him according to your own law.”

The Jews replied, “We are not allowed to put anyone to death.” (This happened to make come true what Jesus had said when he indicated the kind of death he would die.)

[Lk] They began to accuse him: “We caught this man misleading our people, telling them not to pay taxes to the Emperor and claiming that he himself is Christ, a king.”

342.    The Secret Questioning

Pilate went back into the palace and called Jesus. “Are you the king of the Jews?” he asked him.

Jesus answered, “Does this question come from you or have others told you about me?”

Pilate replied: “Do you think I am a Jew? It was your own people and their chief priests who handed you over to me. What have you done?”

Jesus said: “My kingdom does not belong to this world; if my kingdom belongs to this world, my followers would fight to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. No, my kingdom does not belong here!”

So Pilate asked him, “Are you a king, then?”

Jesus answered: “You say that I am a king. I was born and came in the world for this one purpose, to speak about the truth. Whoever belongs to the truth listens to me.” “And what is truth?” Pilate asked.

 

343.     Pilate’s Indecision

[Mt] He said nothing in response to the accusations of the chief priests and elders.

So Pilate said to him, “Don’t you hear all these things they accuse you of?”

But Jesus refused to answer a single word, so that the Governor was greatly surprised.

[Lk] Then Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no reason to condemn this man.”

But they insisted even more strongly, “He is starting a riot among the people with his teaching! He began in Galilee, went through all of Judea, and now has come here.”

When Pilate heard this he asked, “Is this man a Galilean?” When he learned that Jesus was from the region ruled by Herod, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time.

 

344.   Before Herod

[Lk] Herod was very pleased when he saw Jesus, for he had heard about him and  wanted to see him for a long time; he was hoping to see Jesus perform some miracle. So Herod asked Jesus many questions, but Jesus did not answer a word. The chief priests and the teachers of the Law stepped forward and made strong accusations against Jesus. Herod and his soldiers made fun of Jesus and treated him with contempt. They put a fine robe on him and sent him back to Pilate. On that very day Herod and Pilate became friends; they had been enemies before this.

 

345.    Second Hearing before Pilate

Pilate called together the chief priests, the leaders, and the people, and said to them: “You brought this man to me and said that he was misleading the people. Now, I have examined him here in your presence, and I have not found him guilty of any of the bad things you accuse him of. Nor did Herod find him guilty, for he sent him back to us. There is nothing this man has done to deserve death. I will have him whipped, then, and let him go.”

 

346.    Jesus is Sentenced to Death

[Mk] At every Passover Feast Pilate would set free any prisoner the people asked for. At that time a man named Barabbas was in the prison with the rebels who had committed murder in the riot. When the crowd gathered and began to ask Pilate to do them the usual favor, Pilate asked them: “Do you want me to set free for you the king of the Jews?” He knew very well that the chief priests had handed Jesus over to him because they were jealous.

[Mt] While Pilate was sitting in the judgment hall, his wife sent him a message: “Have nothing to do with that innocent man, because in a dream last night I suffered much on account of him.”

The chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask Pilate to set Barabbas free and have Jesus put to death. But Pilate asked them, “Which one of these two do you want me to set free for you?”

[Lk] The whole crowd cried out, “Kill him!  Get Barabbas free for us!” (Barabbas had been put in prison for a riot that had taken place in the city, and for murder.)

Pilate wanted to set Jesus free, so he appealed to the crowd again.

[Mt] “What, then, shall I do with Jesus called the Messiah?” Pilate asked them.

“Crucify him!” they all answered.

[Lk] Pilate said to them the third time: “But what crime has he committed? I cannot find anything he has done to deserve death! I will have him whipped and set him free.”

But they kept on shouting at the top of their voices that Jesus should be crucified; and finally their shouting succeeded. So Pilate passed the sentence on Jesus that they were asking for. He set free the man they wanted, the one who had been put in prison for riot and murder, and turned Jesus over to them to do as they wished.

 

347.    The Scourging and Crowing with Thorns

[Jn] Then Pilate took Jesus and had him whipped.

[Mt] Then Pilate’s soldiers took Jesus into the governor’s palace, and the whole company gathered around him. They stripped off his clothes and put a scarlet robe on him. Then they made a crown out of thorny branches and put it on his head, and put a stick in his right hand; then they knelt before him and mocked. “Long-live the King of the Jews!” they said. They spat on him, and took the stick and hit him over the head.

 

348.    Look! here is the Man

Pilate went out once more and said to the crowd, “Look, I will bring him out here to you, to let you see that I cannot find any reason to condemn him.” So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Look! Here is the man!”

When the chief priests the guards saw him they shouted, “Crucify him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “You take him, then, and crucify him. I find no reason to condemn him.”

The Jews answered back, “We have a law that says he ought to die, because he claimed to be the Son of God.”

When Pilate heard them say this, he was even more afraid. He went back into the palace and said to Jesus, “Where do you come from?”

But Jesus gave him no answer. Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Remember, I have the authority to set you free, and also to have you crucified.”

Jesus answered, “You have authority over me only because it was given to you by God. So the man who handed me over to you is guilty of a worse sin.”

When Pilate heard this he tried to find a way to set him free. But the crowds shouted back, “If you set him free that means you are not the Emperor’s friend! Anyone who claims to be a king is a rebel against the Emperor.”

349.    The Sentence

[Jn] When Pilate heard these words, he took Jesus outside and sat down on the judge’s seat in the place called “The Stone Pavement.” (In Hebrew the name is “Gabbatha.”)

It was then almost noon of the day before the Passover. Pilate said to the people, “Here is your king!”

They shouted back, “Kill him! Kill him! Crucify him!”

Pilate asked them, “Do you want me to crucify your king?”

The chief priests answered, “The only king we have is the Emperor!”
[Mt] When Pilate saw it was no use to go on, but that a riot might break out, he took some water, washed his hands in front of the crowd, and said, “I am not responsible for the death of this man! This is your doing!” The whole crowd answered back, “Let the responsibility for his death fall on us and on our children!”

Pilate wanted to please the crowd, so he set Barabbas free for them. Then he had Jesus whipped and handed him over to be crucified.

 

XXXII. THE CRUCIFIXION

350.     Way of the Cross

[Mt] When they finished mocking him, they took the robe off and put his own clothes back on him, and then led him out to be crucified.

[Jn] He went out, carrying his own cross, and came to “The Place of the Skull,” as it is called. (In Hebrew it is called “Golgotha.”)

[Lk] As they were going they met a man named Simon, from Cyrene, who was coming into the city from the country. They seized him, put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus.

A large crowd of people followed him; among them were some women who were weeping and wailing for him. Jesus turned to them and said: “Women of Jerusalem! Don’t cry for me, but for yourselves and your children. For, the days are coming when people will say, ‘How lucky are the women who never had children, who never bore babies, who never nursed them!” That will be the time when people will say to the mountains, ‘Fall on us!’ and to the hills, ‘Hide us!’ For if such things as these are done when the wood is green, what will it be like when it is dry?”

They took two other men both of them criminals, to be put to death with Jesus.

 

351.     JESUS IS CRUCIFIED

[Mt] They came to a place called Golgotha, which means, "The Place of the Skull." There they offered Jesus wine mixed with a bitter substance; but after tasting it, he would not drink it.

[Mk] It was nine o'clock in the morning when they crucified him. The notice of the accusation against him said: "The King of the Jews." They also crucified two bandits with Jesus, one of his right and the other on his left. [Lk] Jesus said, "Forgive them, Father! They don't know what they are doing."

352.     The Inscription

[Jn] Pilate wrote a notice and had it put on the cross. “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews,” is what he wrote. Many Jews read this, because the place where Jesus was crucified was not far from the city. The notice was written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. The Jewish chief priests said to Pilate, “Do not write “The King of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘this man said, I am the King of the Jews.’”

Pilate answered, “What I have written stays written.”

353.     The Division of the Garments

[Jn] After the soldiers had nailed Jesus to the cross, they took his clothes and divided them into four parts, one part for each soldier. They also took the robe, which was made of one piece of woven cloth, without any seams in it. The soldiers said to each other, “Let us not tear it; let us throw dice to see who will get it.” This happened to make the scripture come true:

          “They divided my clothes among themselves,
           They gambled for my robe.”

This is what the soldiers did.

 

354.     Blasphemies

[Mt] People passing by shook their heads and hurled insults at Jesus: “You were going to tear down the Temple and build it up in three days! Save yourself, if you are God’s Son! Come down from the cross!”

In the same way the chief priests and the teachers of the Law and the elders made fun of him: “He saved others but he cannot save himself! Isn’t he the King of Israel? If he will come down off the cross now, we will believe in him. [Lk] The soldiers mocked him: they came up to him and offered him cheap wine, and said, "Save yourself if you are the King of the Jews!" He trusts in God and claims to be God's Son. Well then let us see if God wants to save him now!"

 

355.    The Good Thief

[Lk] One of the criminals hanging there threw insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!”

The other one, however, rebuked him, saying: “Don’t you fear God? Here we are all under the same sentence. Ours, however, is only right, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did; but he has done no wrong.” And he said to Jesus, “Remember me, Jesus, when you come as King!”

Jesus said to him, “I tell you this: today you will be in Paradise with me.”

356.    The Mother of Jesus

Standing close to Jesus’ cross were his mother, his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. Jesus saw his mother and the disciple he loved standing there; so he said to his mother, “He is your son.”

Then he said to the disciple, “She is your mother.” And from that time the disciple took her to live in his home.

 

357.    The Death of Jesus

[Mk] At noon the whole country was covered with darkness, which lasted for three hours. At three o’clock Jesus cried out with a loud shout, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which means, “My God, my God, why did you abandon me?”

Some of the people who were there heard him and said, “Listen, he is calling for Elijah!”

[Jn] Jesus knew that by now everything had been completed; and in order to make the scripture come true he said, “I am thirsty.”

A bowl was there, full of cheap wine. One of them ran up at once, took a sponge soaked it in the cheap wine, put it on the end of a stick, and tried to make him drink it.

But the others said, "Wait, let us see if Elijah is coming to save him!"

[Jn] Jesus drank the wine and said, “It is finished!” [Lk] Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Father! In your hands I place my spirit!” [Jn] Then he bowed his head and died.

 

358.     Miraculous Events

[Mt] Then the curtain hanging in the Temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split apart, the graves broke open, and many of God’s people who had died were raised to life. They left the graves; and after Jesus rose from death they went into the Holy City, where many people saw them.

When the army officer and the soldiers with him, who were watching Jesus, saw the earthquake and everything else that happened, they were terrified, and said “He really was the Son of God!”

[Lk] When the people who had gathered there, to watch the spectacle, saw what happened, they all went back home beating their breasts in sorrow.

[Mk] Some women were there, looking on from a distance. Among them were, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of the younger James and of Joseph and Salome.

They had followed Jesus while he was in Galilee and helped him. Many other women were who had come to Jerusalem with him, were there also.

 

359.     Jesus Side is Pierced

Then the Jewish authorities asked Pilate to allow them to break the legs of the men who had been put to death, and take them down from the crosses. They did this because it was Friday, and they did not want the bodies to stay on the crosses on the Sabbath day, since the coming Sabbath was especially holy.

So the soldiers went and broke the legs of the first man and then of the other man who had been put to death with Jesus. But when they came to Jesus they saw that he was already dead, so they did not break his legs.

One of the soldiers, however, plunged his spear into Jesus’ side, and at once blood and water poured out.

The one who saw this happen has spoken of it so that you also may believe. What he said is true, and he knows that he speaks the truth.

This was done to make the scripture come true, “Not one of his bones will be broken.” And there is another scripture that says, “People will look at him whom they pierced.”

 

360.     The Burial of Jesus

[Mk] It was towards evening and was the Preparation day (that is, the day before the Sabbath). [Lk] There was a man named Joseph, from Arimathea a town in Judaea. He was a good and honorable man, who was waiting for the coming of the Kingdom of God. Although a member of the Council, he had not agreed with their decision and action.

[Jn] Joseph was a follower of Jesus, but in secret, because he was afraid of the Jewish authorities. [Mk] So Joseph went in bravely to the presence of Pilate and asked him for the body of Jesus. Pilate was surprised to hear that Jesus was already dead. He called the army officer and asked him if Jesus had been dead a long time. After hearing the officer’s report, Pilate told Joseph he could have the body.

[Jn] So Joseph went and took it away. Nicodemus, who at first had gone to see Jesus at night, went with Joseph, taking with him about thirty kilograms of spices, a mixture of myrrh and aloes. The two men took Jesus’ body and wrapped it in linen with the spices; according to the Jewish custom of preparing a body for burial.

There was a garden in the place where Jesus had been put to death, and in it there was a new tomb where no one had ever been buried. Since it was the day before the Sabbath and because the tomb was close by, they placed Jesus' body there.

[Lk] The women who had followed Jesus from Galilee went with Joseph and saw the tomb and how Jesus’ body was placed in it. Then they went back home and prepared the spices and perfumes for his body. On the Sabbath they rested, as the Law commanded.

Saturday

361.     The Watch at the Sepulchre

The next day, which was a Sabbath, the chief priests and the Pharisees met with Pilate and said: “Sir, we remember that while that liar was still alive he said, ‘I will be raised to life after three days.” Give orders, then, for his tomb to be carefully guarded until the third day, so that his disciples will not be able to go and steal the body, and then tell the people that he was raised from death. This last lie would be even worse than the first one.”

“Take a guard,” Pilate told them; “go and make the tomb as secure as you can.”

So they left, and made the tomb secure by putting a seal on the stone and leaving the guard on watch.

The Resurrection

XXXIII. APPARITIONS IN JUDAEA

362.     The Empty Tomb

[Mk] After the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices to go and anoint the body of Jesus.

[Mt] Suddenly there was a violent earthquake; an angel of the Lord came down from heaven, rolled the stone away, and sat on it. His appearance was like lightning and his clothes were white as snow. The guards were so afraid that they trembled and became like dead men.

[Mk] Very early on Sunday morning, at sunrise, they went to the tomb. On the way they said to one another, “Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb?” (It was a very large stone.) Then they looked up and saw that the stone had already been rolled back.

[Jn] She went running to Simon Peter and the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and told them, “They have taken the Lord from the tomb and we don’t know where they have put him!”

 

363.     The Message of the Angels

[Lk] So they went in; but they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. They stood there puzzled about this, when suddenly two men in bright shining clothes stood by them. Full of fear, the women bowed down to the ground, [Mk] "Don't be alarmed," they said. "You are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified.

[Lk] “Why are you looking among the dead for one who is alive? [Mt] He is not here; he has been raised, just as he said. Come here and see the place where he was lying. [Lk] Remember what he said to you while he was in Galilee; The Son of Man must be handed over to sinful men, be crucified and three days later rise to life."

[Mk] “Now go and give this message to his disciples, including Peter: “He is going to Galilee ahead of you; there you will see him, just as he told you.’” So they went out and ran from the grave, because fear and terror were upon them. And they said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.

[Lk] Then the women remembered his words, returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven disciples and all the rest. The women were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James; they and the other women with them told these things to the apostles. But the apostles thought that what the women said was nonsense, and did not believe them.

 

364.     Peter and John

[Jn] Then Peter and the other disciple went to the tomb. The two of them were running, but the other disciple ran faster than Peter and reached the tomb first. He bent over and saw the linen wrappings, but he did not go in. Behind him came Simon Peter, and went straight into the tomb. He saw the linen wrappings lying there and the cloth which had been round Jesus’ head. It was not lying with the linen wrappings but was rolled up by itself. Then the other disciple, who had reached the tomb first, also went in; he saw and believed. (They still did not understand the scripture which said that he must rise from death.) Then the disciples went back home wondering at what had happened.

 

365.     Jesus Appears Mary Magdalene

[Jn] Mary stood crying outside the tomb. While she was still crying, she bent over and looked in the tomb, and saw two angels there, dressed in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had been, one at the head, other at the feet. “Woman, why are you crying?” they asked her.

She answered, “They have taken my Lord away, and I do not know where they have put him!”

Then, she turned round and saw Jesus standing there; but she did not know that it was Jesus. “Woman, why are you crying?” Jesus asked her. “Who is it that you are looking for?”

She thought he was the gardener, so she said to him, “If you took him away, sir, tell me where you have put him, and I will go and get him.”

Jesus said to her “Mary!”

She turned toward him and said in Hebrew, “Rabboni!” (This means “Teacher.”

“Do not hold on to me,” Jesus told her, “because I have not yet gone back up to the Father. But go to my brothers and tell them that I am returning to him who is my Father and their Father, my God and their God.’”

So Marry Magdalene went and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and related to them what he had told her.

[Mk] And when they heard her say that Jesus was alive and that she had seen him, they did not believe her.

 

366.     Bribing the Guards

While the women went on their way, some of the soldiers guarding the grave went back to the city and told the chief priests everything that had happened. The chief priests met with the elders and made their plan; they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers and said: “You are to say that his disciples came during the night and stole his body while you were asleep. And if the Governor should hear this, we will convince him and you will have nothing to worry about.”

The guards took the money and did what they were told to do. To this very day that is the report spread around by the Jews.

 

367.     On the Road to Emmaus

On that same day two of Jesus' followers were going to a village named Emmaus, about seven miles from Jerusalem, and they were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. As they talked and discussed, Jesus himself drew near and walked along with them; they saw him, but somehow did not recognize him. Jesus said to them, “What are you talking about to each other, as you walk along?”

They stood still, with sad faces. One of them, named Cleopas, asked him, Are you the only man living in Jerusalem who does not know what has been happening there these last few days?”

“What things?” He asked.

“The things that happened to Jesus of Nazareth,” they answered. “This man was a prophet, and was considered by God and by all the people to be mighty in words and deeds. Our chief priests and rulers handed him over to be sentenced to death, and they crucified him. And we had hoped that he would be the one who was going to redeem Israel! Besides all that, this is now the third day since it happened. Some of the women of our group surprised us; they went at dawn to the tomb, but could not find his body. They came back saying they had seen a vision of angels who told them that he is alive. Some of our group went to the tomb and found it exactly as the women had said, but they did not see him.”

Then Jesus said to them” “How foolish you are, how slow you are to believe everything the prophets said! Was it not necessary for the Messiah to suffer these things and enter his glory?” And Jesus explained to them what was said about him in all the Scriptures, beginning with the books of Moses and the writings of all the prophets.

They came near the village to which they were going, and Jesus acted as if he were going farther; but they held him back, saying, “Stay with us; the day is almost over and it is getting dark.” So he went in to stay with them. He sat at table with them, took the bread, and said the blessing; then he broke the bread and gave it to them. Their eyes were opened and they recognized him; but he disappeared from their sight. They said to each other, “Wasn’t it like a fire burning in us when he talked to us on the road and explained the Scriptures to us?”

They got up at once and went back to Jerusalem, where they found the eleven disciples gathered together with the others and saying, “The Lord has risen indeed! Simon has seen him!”

The two then explained to them what had happened on the road, and how they had recognized the Lord when he broke the bread.

368.     Jesus Appears to His Disciples

(St Mark has the following: "Last of all Jesus appeared to the eleven disciples as they were eating. He scolded them, because they did not have faith and because they were too stubborn to believe those who had seen him alive."

[Jn] It was late that Sunday evening, and the disciples were gathered together behind locked doors, because they were afraid of the Jews. Then Jesus came and stood among them. “ Peace  be with you,” he said.

[Lk] Full of fear and terror, they thought that they were seeing a ghost. But he said to them: “Why are you troubled? Why are these doubts coming up in your minds? Look at my hands and my feet and see that it is I myself. Feel me, and you will see, for a ghost doesn’t have flesh and bones, as you can see I have.” He said this and showed them his hands and his feet. They still could not believe, they were so full of joy and wonder; so he asked them, “Do you have anything to eat here?” They gave him a piece of cooked fish, which he took and ate before them.

[Jn] Then Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you. As the Father sent me, so I send you.” He said this, and then he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive men’s sins, then they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, then they are not forgiven.

369.     Apparition to Thomas

One of the disciples, Thomas (called the Twin), was not with them when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, “We saw the Lord!”

Thomas said to them, “If I do not see the scars of the nails in his hands, and put my finger where the nails were, and my hand in his side, I will not believe.”

A week later the disciples were together indoors again, and Thomas was with them. The doors were locked, but Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you.” Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here, and look at my hands; then stretch out your hand and put it in my side. Stop your doubting and believe!”

Thomas answered him, “My Lord and My God!”

Jesus said to him, “Do you believe because you see me? How happy are those who believe without seeing me!”

XXXIV. APPARITIONS IN GALILEE

370.     Jesus Appears to Seven Disciples

After this, Jesus appeared once more to his disciples at Lake Tiberias. This is how it happened. Simon Peter, Thomas (called the Twin), Nathanael (the one form Cana in Galilee), the sons of Zebedee, and two others disciples of Jesus were all together. Simon Peter said to the others, “I am going fishing.”

“We will come with you,” they told him. So they went and got into the boat; but all that night they did not catch a thing. As the sun was rising, Jesus stood at the water’s edge, but the disciples did not know that it was Jesus. Then he said to them, “young men, haven’t you caught anything?”

“Not a thing,” they answered.

He said to them, “Throw your net out on the right side of the boat, and you will find some.” So they threw the net out, and could not pull it back in, because they had caught so many fish.

The disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, “It is the Lord!” When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he wrapped his outer garment around him (for he had taken his clothes off) and jumped into the water. The rest of the disciples came to shore in the boat, pulling the net full of fish. They were not very far from land, about a hundred yards away. When they stepped ashore they saw a charcoal fire there with fish and bread on it. Then Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you have just caught.”

Simon Peter went aboard and dragged the net ashore, full of big fish, a hundred and fifty-three in all; even though there were so many, still the net did not tear. Jesus said to them, “Come and eat.” None of the disciples dared ask him, “Who are you?” because they knew it was the Lord. So Jesus went over, took the bread, and gave it to them; he did the same with the fish.

This, then, was the third time Jesus showed himself to the disciples after he was raised from death.

371.     Primacy of Peter

After they had eaten, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?”

“Yes, Lord,” he answered, “you know that I love you.”

Jesus said to him, “Take care of my lambs.” A second time Jesus said to him, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?”

“Yes, Lord,” he answered, “you know that I love you.”

Jesus said to him, “Take care of my sheep.” A third time Jesus said, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?”

Peter became sad because Jesus asked him the third time, “Do you love me?” and said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you!”

Jesus said to him: “Take care of my sheep. I tell you the truth: when you were young you used to fasten your belt and go anywhere you wanted to; but when you are old you will stretch out your hands and someone else will tie them and take you where you don’t want to go.” (In saying this Jesus was indicating the way in which Peter would die and give glory to God.) Then Jesus said to him, “Follow me!”

Peter turned around and saw behind him that other disciple, whom Jesus loved- the one who had leaned close to Jesus at the meal and asked, “Lord, who is going to betray you?” When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, “Lord, what about this man?”

Jesus answered him, “If I want him to live on until I come, what is that to you? Follow me!”

So a report spread among the followers of Jesus that this disciple would not die. But Jesus did not say that he would not die; he said, “If I want him to live on until I come, what is that to you?”

 

372.     On the Mountain

The eleven disciples went to the hill in Galilee where Jesus had told them to go. When they saw him they worshiped him, even though some of them doubted.

373.     Mission of the Disciples

[Mt] Jesus drew near and said to them, "I have been given all authority in heaven and on earth. [Mk] “Go then to the whole world and preach the gospel to all mankind [Mt] make them my disciples: baptize them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teach them to obey everything I have commanded you.

[Mk] Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned. Believers will be given the power to perform miracles: they will drive out demons in my name; they will speak in strange tongues; if they pick up snakes or drink any poison, they will not be harmed; they will place their hands on the sick, and they will get well.” [Mt] And remember! I will be with you always, to the end of the age.”

XXXV. THE ASCENSION

374.     Last Admonitions

[Lk] Then he said to them: “These are the very things I told you while I was still with you: everything written about me in the Law of Moses, the writings of the prophets, and the Psalms had to come true.”

Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, and said to them: “This is what is written: that the Messiah must suffer and be raised from death on the third day, and that in his name the message about repentance and the forgiveness of sins must be preached to all nations, beginning in Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things.

And when they came together, he gave them this order: “Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised.

And I myself will send upon you what my Father has promised. But you must wait in the city until the power from above comes down upon you.”

"John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.”

When the apostles met together with Jesus they asked him, “Lord, will you at this time give the Kingdom back to Israel?

Jesus said them: “The times and occasions are set by my Father’s own authority, and it is not for you to know when they will be. But you will be filled with power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and you will be witnesses for me in Jerusalem, in all of Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.”

375.     The Ascension

[Lk] Then he led them out of the city as far as Bethany, where he raised his hands and blessed them. [A] After saying this, he was taken up into heaven as they watched him, and a cloud hid him from their sight.

[Mk] After the Lord Jesus had talked with them, he was taken up to heaven and sat at the right side of God.

[A] They still had their eyes fixed on the sky as he went away, when two men dressed in white suddenly stood beside them, and said, "Galileans, why do you stand there looking up at the sky? This Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will come back in the same way that you saw him go to heaven."

[Lk] They worshiped him and went back into Jerusalem, filled with great joy, and spent all their time in the Temple giving thanks to God.

 

376.     The Coming of the Holy Spirit

When the day of Pentecost arrived, all the believers were gathered together in one place. Suddenly there was a noise from the sky which sounded like a strong wind blowing, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. Then they saw what looked like tongues of fire spreading out and touched each person there. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to talk in other languages, as the Spirit enabled them to speak.

There were Jews living in Jerusalem, religious men who had come from every country in the world. When they heard this noise, a whole crowd gathered. They were all excited, because each one of them heard the believers talking in their own language. In amazement and wonder they exclaimed: “These men who are talking like this- they are all Galileans! How is it, then, that all of us hear them speaking in our own native language? We are from Parthia, Media, and Elam; from Mesopotamia, Judea, and Cappadocia; from Pontus and Asia, from Phrygia and Pamphylia, from Egypt and the regions of Libya near Cyrene; some of us are from Rome, both Jews and Gentiles converted to Judaism; and some of us are from Crete and Arabia - yet all of us hear them speaking in our own languages of the great things that God has done!”

377.     St. Peter’s Message

Then Peter stood up with the other eleven apostles, and in a loud voice began to speak to the crowd: “Fellow Jews, and all of you who live in Jerusalem, listen to me and let me tell you what this means.

Listen to these words, men of Israel! Jesus of Nazareth was a man whose divine authority was clearly proven to you by the miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through him; you yourselves know this, for it took place here among you. God, in his own will and knowledge, had already decided that Jesus would be handed over to you; and you killed him, by letting sinful men crucify him.

"But God has raised this very Jesus from the death, and we are all witnesses to this fact. He has been raised to the right side of God and has received from him the Holy Spirit, as his Father had promised. What you now see and hear is his gift that he has poured out on us.

“All the people of Israel, then, are to know for sure, that it is this Jesus, whom you crucified who is the one that God has made Lord and Messiah!”

 

378.     The Effect

When the people heard this, they were deeply troubled, and said to Peter and the apostles, “What shall we do, brothers?”

Peter said to them: “Turn away from your sins, each one of you, and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ, so that your sins will be forgiven; and you will receive God’s gift, the Holy Spirit. For God’s promise was made to you and your children, and to all who are far away - all whom the Lord our God calls to himself.”

Many of them believed his message and were baptized; about three thousand people were added to the group that day.

 

379.     The Propagation of the Gospel

The disciples went and preached everywhere, and the Lord worked with them and proved that their preaching was true by the miracles that were performed.

 

380.     The Purpose of this Book

In his disciples’ presence Jesus performed many other mighty works which are not written down in this book. These have been written that you may believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and that through this faith you may have life in his name.

He is the disciple who spoke of these things, the one who also wrote them down; and we know that what he said is true.

Now, there are many other things that Jesus did. If they were all written down one by one, I suppose that the whole world could not hold the books that would be written.

him." i.e. Peter.

St Marks adds: "Some of them began to spit Jesus."

The Sanhedrin, the supreme council of 71 members, consisted of chief priests, scribes and the elders of the people. The last category represented the lay nobility. This session of the Sanhedrin, ending with the condemnation of Our Lord, is reported by St Matthew and St Mark as having taken place at the night session, whereas St Luke places it at the morning session. Leading Catholic scholars agree that two almost similar sessions are improbable and adopt the chronology of St Luke.

Jesus had prophesied his death on the cross and only a Roman execution could verify this prophecy. The Jews had condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and according to their own law (Lev.24, 10-16) the punishment for this was stoning.

Lithostrotos: this Greek word means "Pavement."

St Marks adds : "the father of Alexander and Rufus."

St John reads: "on a stalk of hyssop."

This miracle was a symbolic expression of the abolition of the Old Legislation given to Moses.

Instead on Salome, St. Mathew reads, “and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.”

St Matthew and St Mark mention that he was "a rich man".

We Know from St Matthew that the tomb belonged to Joseph of Arimathea: Joseph took possession of the body, and wrapped it in a clean winding-sheet; then he buried it in a new grave, which he had fashioned for himself out of the rock, and left it there, rolling a great stone against the grave 'door'  (27, 59-60).

"She," i.e. Mary Magdalene.

"They," i.e. the holy women.

St Matthew says, "they left the tomb in a hurry, afraid and yet filled with joy." St Mark, who describes the first moment with all bewilderment writes: So they went out ran from the tomb distressed and terrified. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid." We know, however, from the other Evangelists that they recovered themselves and informed the disciples.

St Matthew's account of the Resurrection and subsequent events is condensed into twenty verses. He mentions only "Mary Magdalene and the other Mary," who came to see the tomb. An angel appears, rolling away the stone and giving them the message for the disciples; they run to deliver the message. St Matthew then mentions the apparition of Our Lord: "And while they were on their way, all at once Jesus met them and said: All hail. With that, they came near to him, and clung to his feet, and worshipped him. Then Jesus said to the, Do not be afraid: go and give word to my brethren to remove into Galilee; they shall see me there." This is the only apparition in Judaea mentioned in the first Gospel. Taking into account the peculiarities of St Matthew's style and composition, modern Catholic scholars have identified this apparition with the one to Mary Magdalene narrated by St. John (No.365).

"The Woman" i.e. the Holy women.

The institution of the sacrament of Penance, when the apostles received the power to forgive sins.

 
 
 
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